Only when documentation has been found are specific tribal names given

 Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) used by Menominee, Ojibwe, Potawatomi

 pipe stems; bows, arrow shafts; ash split baskets; woven wood baskets

Red Ash (Fraximus pennsylvanica) used by Ojibwe, Potawatomi

woven wood baskets, wooden spoons

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) used by Potawatomi

needles used for making pillows

Basswood (Tilia americana)

Cherokee, Chippewa/Ojibwe, Menominee, Meskwaki

Beech (Fagus grandiflora) used by Menominee, Potawatomi

fencing, building, fuel, food bowls, chopping bowls

 Burdock hats


Birches, Yellow, White, Hazel shoots, smooth and speckled Alder  used by Menominee, Ojibwe, Potawatomie

lodge frames, fencing, poles

White birch: storage baskets, sap buckets, wigwam coverings, canoes

Cattail (Typha latifolia)  used by Menominee, Ojibwe, Potawatomi

root used for caulking boats; leaves made into mats to cover winter lodges; ripened fruit (tail) used as bedding for infants

Cedar or Arbor-vitae (Pinaceae) used by Menominee

bark woven into bags; leaves stored with clothing to keep moths out

Dogbane, Spreading (Apocynum androsaemifolium) used by Menominee

fibers plaited into bow strings


Elm, American or White   

Hickory (Carya ovata) used by Ojibwe and Potawatomi

bows and arrows

Hazelnut (Corylus rostra) used by Potawatomi

twigs bound together to make brooms; Pacific northwest Native Americans used the wood for arrows, fishing traps, and spoons

Horsetail (Equisetum hyemele) used by Menominee, Ojibwe, Potawatomie

scouring rush for pots and pans


Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) used by Potawatomi

cones yield a pitch for waterproofing; pitch used with cedar for torches

Juneberry/Saskatoon  used by Ojibwe 

arrow shafts

Red Maple (Acer rubrum) used by Potawatomi

traps deodorized by boiling with bark

Red Cedar

Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) used by Menomini and Potawatomi

wood made into boxes and baskets

Sphagnum Moss (Sphagnum sp.) used by Potawatomi

to make or stuff pillow and mattresses

Sweet Fern (Myrica asplenifolia) used by Potawatomi 

smudge to keep mosquitos away; line berry pails to protect berries


Willow Salix L. species used by Dene

arrows, bows, cooking baskets, bark shredded and made into fishing line and nets


Wool Grass (Scirpus cyperinus) used by Chippewa/Ojibwe, Potawatomi

stuffing for pillows, used to make mats and woven bags and baskets